Newsletter of the District
- Dec 2001
A short Philippine
before the 1898 Revolution
search of spices
Magellan, a veteran Portuguese soldier, returned from the Spice
Islands of the Moluccas, he approached the Portuguese King with
a proposal to find a westward route from Portugal to the rich islands
of Spices, on the opposite side of the world. The King however,
did not take advantage of the offer, and temporized. In the meantime,
Magellan offered his services to the King of Spain the great Charles
V, who was soon to be raised to the dignity of Holy Roman Emperor.
In Spain, funds were needed for the treasury. Spices were not cheap
in Europe and there is a high demand, so commerce with them is one
of the best solutions for raising the necessary funds. The King
of Spain thus provided Magellan with a fleet of five ships: Trinidad,
Victoria, Concepcion, Santiago and San Antonio. On August 10, 1519
the fleet sailed westward from Seville in search of a passageway
to the Moluccas. It was manned by a crew of 270 men and there were
2 chaplains both were secular priests: Father Pedro de Valderama
and another one a French by nationality who was latter abandoned
by Magellan in the coast of Brazil. After various incidents suffered
from men and the elements as it sailed across the Atlantic Ocean
and down the coast of South America, the fleet reached in the last
days of October the passage which now bears the name of the leader
of this expedition. In November they turned north to the vast expanse
of the Pacific Ocean. It took a whole year to arrive at this turn.
But by this time, only three ships were left. The Santiago had sunken
before they espied the strait and the San Antonio secretly sailed
back to Spain.
On March 6,
1521 after an exhausting voyage across the Pacific Ocean, the explorers
reached the Landrones Island group (Marianas). From here, they veered
southwards in the direction of the Moluccas. But, on the 16th of
March, a body of land unexpectedly aroused before their eyes, it
was the coast of the island of Samar. Without stopping, they continued
sailing southwards but Magellan called this the Island of Saint
Lazarus for it was the Saturday before the Passion Sunday. Latter,
the name was extended to the whole archipelago. The next day, they
reached the island of Homonhon where they rested from the fatigue
of such a long navigation. Here, they pitched their tents for the
sick crew to recover, thanks to the friendly welcome of the natives
who gave them fresh provisions. But on March 22, the chieftain himself
came and greeted the visitors. Here, Magellan and his crew stayed
for about 9 days to recover. But, at the last moment the chronicler
of the fleet Antonio de Pigafetta slipped out of the ship and no
one noticed him. But, invoking Our Lady whose feast it was that
day (Annunciation) he was able to catch hold of the clew-garment
of the main sail and latter was rescued by a small boat. Shortly
afterwards, the little fleet sailed again. They rounded the southern
tip. On the night of March 28, they saw a bonfire at a nearby island
and they headed towards it. This was the Limasawa Island in the
southern tip of Leyte. Here, Magellan was greeted officially by
nine men who were joyful of their arrival. They represented the
chieftain of the area. Then, seeing them, Enrique who was Magellan's
Malay slave and interpreter from Malacca, bade them to come. It
was a crucial moment in the history of mankind, a solemn moment.
For the first time in the history of mankind a living man encircled
the globe! The indisputable proof is that these men understood perfectly
and responded with the same tongue to Enrique. Magellan therefore
and his Malay slave Enrique were the first men to circumnavigate
seeing that they were reasonable men, Magellan offered them food
and drink. The islanders brought with them food placed on white
Chinese porcelain wares. This confirmed further Magellan that he
is now truly in the East. That day, Magellan struck a pack with
the chieftain Rajah Colambu. Then, on March 31, 1521, in this Island
of Limawasa, the first Holy Sacrifice of the Mass was celebrated
by Father Pedro de Valderama. This Mass was attended by both the
remaining crew and the natives. At the consecration, all the canons
saluted our Eucharistic Lord. After the Mass, the natives expressed
their desire to be Christians and for this, Magellan planted hastily
a big cross on the top of the hill. This was the first Holy Cross
planted in these isles, and it was the Easter Sunday when they do
the Cross: (detail of the shrine ceiling)
Now that the
islanders and the Europeans became friends, the islanders described
the other islands like Butuan and Calangan. But Magellan did not
go there. Afterwards, the island of Cebu was mentioned. He leave
Limasawa on April 4, but three days latter, he entered the narrow
sea between Mactan and Cebu. He ranged his ships in battle formation
and saluted fired all his guns, scarring the Cebuanos. It was actually
the European custom of saluting the people and honoring the king
of friendly ports. On arriving, Magellan's interpreter told the
natives that they had come to discover the Malucho (Moluccas) and
were here to visit the king and to buy food with his merchandise.
The Cebuano spokesman told them that they are welcome. However,
the king Seripalda Humabon demanded that they must first pay the
tribute imposed on all incoming ships. Magellan refused to pay the
tribute boasting that he represented a great king who pays no tributes.
He threatened them that if they would insist on collecting it, they
would regret latter. Then, a Moro trader warned the King that the
newcomers were subjects of a powerful king who had already conquered
Calicut, Malacca and the whole of India. Of course, he was referring
to the King of Portugal and not to Charles V of Spain. But the trader
knew no better and Magellan did not disabuse him. The King bade
the Europeans to wait until he had consulted his advisers, meanwhile
he offered them refreshments of many dishes, all made from meat
and contained in porcelain platters, besides many jars of wine.
The next morning, there was the formal meeting between the Cebuanos
and the European visitors. The interpreter assured the natives that
they only come for trade with them. Satisfied, the King asked Magellan
the token of friendship. Both put a drop of blood from his right
arm into a cup mixed with wine and drunk from it. This is the "Kasi-kasi"
or the blood-compact, which sealed their friendship. Magellan therefore
came for trade and not for conquest. During his brief stay in Cebu
Magellan mentioned many things which sounded new to the King. Then,
Magellan asked the King who would succeed him. The King responded
that he had no sons but that his eldest daughter is married to his
nephew who is the "rajamuda" (crowned prince). This would
be his successor. He added that when the fathers and mothers grew
old they received no further honor, but their children commanded
them. Magellan grabbed this opportunity to explain the Christian
law of love and respect for parents and elders even they were old
and weak. He also narrated the Bible stories of the Creation, Adam
and Eve, life after death and other Christian doctrines. Because
he could not leave them behind teachers to instruct them, Magellan
offered to baptize them if they wanted and to bring priests the
next time when they come to instruct them in greater depth of the
did not wait for Magellan's return before they embraced Christianity.
On April 14, 1521, a week after the arrival of Magellan in Cebu,
Father de Valderama erected and blessed the Holy Cross in the middle
of their settlement. There in that plaza, that same day, the King
and the Queen with 800 of their subjects - men women and children
were baptized. The King was given the name "Don Carlos"
in honor to King Charles V of Spain and the Queen was named "Dona
Juana" in honor of the King Charle's wife. It was in seeing
a wooded statue of Our Lady, a very beautiful wooden statue of the
Child Jesus and a crucifix that she was overcome by contrition and
asked for baptism amidst her tears. After baptism, as a gift to
the Queen, Magellan gave her the statue of the Infant Jesus whom
the Filipinos loved very much and called Him the "Santo Niño
of Cebu". However, Pigafetta gave a statue of Our Lady to her
also. But the Santo Niño being the first to be recovered
has become the symbol of the Catholic faith in the Philippines.
The original statue is venerated even until today in His Basilica
Minore under the guardianship of the Augustinian Fathers. If Mexico
has the image of Our Lady of Guadalupe, the Philippines possessed
the image of the Santo Niño!
told Magellan that not all chieftains obeyed him, because they said
they were as good men as he. So Magellan convoked all the chiefs
and told them that unless they would obey Don Carlos as their king,
he would have them killed and give all their possessions to the
King. On the 26th of April Rajah Zula, one of the chiefs of Mactan
send 2 goats as present to Magellan, apologizing that he could not
give more since Lapulapu the other chief refused to obey the King
of Spain. Rajah Zula nevertheless assured Magellan that with European
reinforcements he would be able to subdue his rival. However, instead
of sending reinforcements, Magellan without knowing the terrain
volunteered to fight Lapulapu.
The next morning,
at three o'clock, Magellan with sixty men arrived in Mactan shore.
He neither took normal battle precautions in an unknown terrain,
nor provided adequate fire support on the shore. Moreover, he did
not strike as soon as he arrived but waited for the sunrise and
even allowing the enemy to summon their allies. Thus, under the
bright morning sun, the fight did not last long. The canon balls
did not destroy but flew through the flimsy nipa hut. Because their
guns were of no use Magellan ordered his men to burn the houses.
This only made the natives more aggressive. Then, came the rain
of poisoned arrows from the natives, which proves here more effective
than European guns. The Europeans panicked since they are encircled
in a shallow sea. Magellan ordered them to retreat. One of the natives
attacked him with a bamboo spear but Magellan killed him with his
lance. Then Magellan tried to grab his sword, but could only draw
it halfway since they wounded him on his arm. Another dashed on
Magellan and wounded his left leg with a large cutlass. Finally,
falling down they immediately rushed on him with their iron and
bamboo spears and their cutlasses. One wonders why so much has been
said of the "heroic valor" of Lapulapu, but paradoxically,
it was Magellan's own courage and self-confidence that destroyed
him. Moreover, no document mentioned that it was Lapulapu who plunged
the weapon and snuffed out Magellan's life. And even if it had been
by his leadership, Lapulapu did not do so in defence of the Philippines,
for that nation as yet did not exist! The life of the first man
who circumnavigated the globe was thus tragically ended.
defeat, the Cebuanos lose heart and repudiated their alliance killing
the remaining 20 Europeans and burning their ship the Concepcion.
Thus, most of them returned to their idols. They burried on the
ground both the Cross and Our Lady's statue. But they keep with
them the Santo Niño whom they revered as the "Bathala",
the Supreme God. They invoke Him in time of drought, by giving a
ritual bath to the Santo Niño in the seashore. In the time
of epidemy, they made a procession around the village with this
statue. Not everything therefore is lost in this first effort to
Christianize the country. These miracles made them know that this
Statue represents the one and true God.
The other two
ships did arrive in the Moluccas under the command of the sub-officer,
Juan Sebastian del Cano. Some months are spent to repair them, then
the Trinidad left in direction of Mexico. But, it was intercepted
and so, it was forced to return and to submit to the Portuguese.
The flagship however of del Cano, the Victoria succeeded the epic
feat of circumnavigating the globe in one journey. It docked in
the ports of Seville on September 6, 1522 with only eighteen of
the sixty survivors who had escaped the Moluccas from Cebu. These
men survived the horrors of this travel of 52 300 kilometers of
unknown bodies of water.
Encouraged by the partial success of Magellan's expedition, Charles
V sent another fleet under the leadership of Juan Garcia Jofre de
Loaysa on 24th of July 1525 from the port of La Coruna. Loayza died
in crossing the Pacific on July 30, 1526. The legendary del Cano
took over, only to die a few days latter. Finally, Martin Iniguez
de Carquizano bypassed the Philippines and headed to the Moluccas
but could not break Portuguese resistance. So he anchored in some
point near Tidore Island to await reinforcements.
the fate of Loaysa and his crew, a fleet was readied in Mexico under
the direction of Alvaro Saavedra de Ceron. Departing on the 31st
of October 1527 the fleet sighted the islets of Surigao on the 1st
of February 1528. The hostile inhabitants forced the Spaniards to
sail on. On their way, they picked-up some stragglers of the Loaysa's
expedition. At Tidore one of the Spice Islands, they stopped for
the spices and turned back towards Mexico. But this was a great
mistake. In the lower latitudes, contrary winds blew them back and
they hit Caroline Islands. There, Saavedra died and Pedro Laso took
the command. Unfortunately, he died also a week latter. Thus, the
crew went back to Tidore and surrendered to the Portuguese.
ending of these expeditions did not weaken the resolution of Charles
V. Having settled the claims of the Moluccas by the Treaty of Zaragoza,
Charles V ordered Antonio de Mendoza the viceroy of Mexico to prepare
an armada for the East this time to colonize the "Islas del
Poniente" (Isles of the West). The commander of the expedition
was Ruy Lopez de Villalobos who departed from Mexico on November
1, 1542. He arrived at Baganga Bay in Davao Oriental on February
2, 1543 and named the area "Philippines" in honor to Philip
the Prince of Asturias, son and successor of Charles V to the throne
of Spain. Latter, this name was extended to the whole country to
replace the old name given by Magellan, the Archipelago of Saint
Lazarus. The lack of food and the unfriendly welcome made Villalobos'
fleet sail northward. But instead of going to Cebu, a storm brought
them to Leyte. Again the islanders have a hostile attitude. So they
decided to go to Tidore. They reached the place on the 24th of April
1544 and like the rest they surrendered to the Portuguese. Villalobos
died in Amboina in the spring of 1546, victim of deep melancholia.
They other members of the crew stayed in the East, while the others
returned to Europe on board Portuguese ship. Among those who returned
were four Augustinian Fathers: Jeronimo Jeminez, Nicholas de Perea,
Sebastian de Trasierra and Alonso de Alvaro. These were the first
priests and missionaries who circumnavigated the world.
In the year
1553, Philip II ascended the Spanish throne. As a Catholic King,
he occupied himself with the temporal well-being of his subjects,
but always in view to favor and to promote their spiritual and supernatural
end. In Spain, there was a great deliberation concerning the "Islas
del Poniente" as they called our archipelago. The Council for
the Indies wanted to abandon the Philippines. But Philip II decided
otherwise. He responded with an answer worthy of a Catholic monarch
saying " if the income of those islands were not enough to
support one hermit, and if there were one person there to keep the
name and the veneration of Jesus Christ alive, I would send missionaries
from Spain to spread His gospel. Looking for mines of precious metals
is not the only business of kings!" In 1559 therefore, he ordered
the viceroy of Mexico Don Luis de Velasco to equip an armada for
the spiritual and the material conquest of the Philippines. Now,
an experienced mariner presented himself to the scene. He was once
a page at the Loaysa's expedition, but now an Augustinian priest.
He is Fr. Andres de Urdaneta who told them that it was easy to sail
west to reach the East and to return with the same route. So, because
of his experience and confidence he was asked to join the expedition
as the chief pilot. At his suggestion, a royal official of unblemished
record in Mexico was chosen to command the fleet, Don Miguel Lopez
for the said fleet started on 24 September 1559 and, after some
delay, the fleet set sail on November 20, 1564. There were four
ships in this fleet: San Pedro (the flagship), San Pablo, San Juan
de Letran and San Lucas. Neither native Americans nor women were
allowed on board. While Martin Luther, an Augustinian monk separated
from the Church by his heresy almost a third of Europe, four of
his Augustinian confreres were to be the first missionaries of this
expedition. These priests were Fathers Andres de Urdaneta (chief
pilot of the expedition and Superior of the group), Diego de Herrera,
Martin de Rada, Andres de Aguirre and Pedro de Gamboa. Two hours
after midnight, the expedition lifted its anchors, unfurled sails
and set out on the western route to the east.
Ocean was exactly what its name signify, easy to sail. On January
8, 1565, land was sighted and the cannon was fired, but it proved
to be just a mirage. Next day, actual land was sighted and was called
the Barbados Island for its people were bearded. Two weeks latter,
Guam was reached. Legaspi took possession in the King's name and
the crew did a bit of bartering for some of their goods. February
3, they sailed again and ten days latter, they saw the eastern coast
of Samar. Proceeding to Bohol, Legazpi made there the famous blood-compact
with the chieftain Rajah Sikatuna.
what they had expected, the neighboring people were unfriendly.
In Cabalian, Limasawa, Camiguin and Butuan, the natives fled as
soon as the Spaniards arrived. Further on, they captured a Borneo
vessel, but Legazpi ordered the cargo returned to its owners. Then,
its Moro pilot explained to them the reason of the natives' hostility:
The Portuguese had poisoned the minds of the Eastern Visayans. Friendly
at first and introducing themselves as Spaniards, the Portuguese
were welcomed by the natives. But soon, they turned around the population,
burning fields and houses and effectively turned the natives against
the Spaniards. By now, the lack of food was seriously felt by the
crew. Scouting groups had gone out, and two men returned with glowing
reports. Esteban Rodriguez de Figueroa and Juan de Aguirre said
that there was a big port nearby which is called Sugbu.
Santo Niño again
On the 25th of April 1565, the fleet entered this big port. But
because the people refused to receive them peacefully, Legazpi used
their cannons and bombarded the town, causing the natives to scamper
the hills, leaving their houses in flames. When the Spaniards landed
unopposed, they unexpectedly found a treasure and a sign from heaven.
It was the soldier Juan de Camus with his friend, the bombardier
Pedro de Alorza, discovered an unburned hut. Entering to this house,
they found a statue of the Child Jesus with its little loose shirt
kept in its cradle, all gilded, and all so well preserved that only
the little cross which is generally upon the globe that he holds
in his hand was missing. The statue was familiar to them for it
was similar to those found in Flanders. Then sailors quickly put
a rude cross atop the hut to mark it and showed the officers, Saez
and Goiti and Esteban Rodriguez, who were trying to control and
assemble the troops.
When this dramatic
find was showed to the devout general, he was deeply moved. He took
it as the touching sign from heaven to set his conscience to rest,
because he had deep devotion to the Holy Name of Jesus and had vowed
to dedicate the first city and the first monastery to be founded
to His Holy Name. Taking the little image in his hands Legazpi reverently
kissed its tiny feet, and raising his eyes to heaven, he prayed
: "Lord, Thou art powerful to punish the offenses done in this
island against Thy majesty, and in order to found in it Thy house
and Holy Church where Thy glorious Name be venerated and exalted!
I beseech Thee to enlighten and guide me so that we do here may
be to Thy glory and honor, and the glorification of Thy Holy Catholic
The image was
then brought in solemn procession to the temporary church and enthroned
on the main altar. Everyone vowed to celebrate the 28th of April
every year as a votive feast of the Most Holy Name of Jesus and
they immediately founded the Confraternity of the Holy Name according
to the constitutions and statutes of a similar Augustinian confraternity
in Mexico City. This image is no doubt, Magellan's gift to the Queen
Juana on her baptism. They then immediately proceed to the establishment
of the first Spanish settlement. It was a triangular town. The formal
ground breaking and possession was done on the 8th of May 1565 and
this part of the city is called La Villa San Miguel because it is
the feast of the Apparition of the Archangel. Today, this settlement
is probably the San Nicholas district of Cebu City. But the settlement
was disturbed on May 23 when Pedro de Arana was murdered by Dagami
a chieftain of Mactan. In retaliation, a posse set out and captured
about 40 prisoners among them was the niece of the chief Tupas of
Cebu. Legazpi sent the girl's maid to tell her uncle to take the
girl and discuss for peace. Tupas did not come, but the girl's father,
Simaquio did with a few slaves to ransom her for he thought that
her daughter was enslaved. Legazpi assured the father that he had
nothing to worry and had the girl brought out clothed as befitting
a princess to the utter amazement of her father.
This won him
over. No, he was not going to take back his daughter. Instead, he
should tell his brother Tupas to befriend with the Spaniards. Otherwise,
he would kill the chief as he had men to do it for him. This incident
hardly mentioned by historians, is very important. This action taught
the girl's father a different meaning of life, the Christian way
of respecting the life of the innocent. For the first time, through
actions and not merely through words, the Cebuanos witnessed a nobler
way of acting. As the missionaries would latter explain to them,
Christianity offered a better life.
A more decisive
event is to happen before the official talks of peace will push
through. Now, the Spaniards faithful to their vow, immediately started
to build the Church for the Santo Niño. Thus, on the 1st
of June Father de Urdaneta had the final satisfaction and consolation
of blessing the new church, before he sailed back to Acapulco in
Mexico. That day, the image of the Santo Niño was carried
in solemn procession from the hut where it was found to the new
temporary church, built at a distance from the military quarters.
Along the way, they were joined by two visiting chiefs and thirty
men. The natives were deeply impressed by the colorful, glorious
pageantry, the blaze of candles and the solemn chants. Father de
Urdaneta addressed to them a few Malay words in his sermon; and
after the Mass Legazpi again made offers and appeals for peace.
We must say that the Santo Niño procession was the first
significant step towards pacification; He had belonged to the people
of Cebu for one generation. They asked Him for rain, for health
in time of diseases and offered to Him fruits and flowers. He was
their favorite and supreme God. And now they discovered that He
was the God of the Spaniards also! Thus, the Santo Niño showed
Himself as the Prince of Peace breaking down the walls of hostility,
uniting both races as members of God's family, fellow citizens of
the angels and saints.
On June 4,
1565, four messengers arrived and announced that Rajah Tupas would
arrive at noon that day. The Rajah finally made a peace treaty with
Legazpi. At the end of the discussions, the King Tupas and the other
chiefs put their weapons on the ground and knelt before the General.
They kissed his hands and promised to be faithful vassals of the
King of Spain. After this, Simaquio's wife and daughters were delivered
over to the men who carried them on their shoulders amidst shouting
and singing. Finally, the Queen arrived with a retinue of 70 ladies
to pay their respects and to all of them Legazpi gave some gifts.
After this, King Tupas sent one of his nieces a widow to be instructed
in the Catholic doctrine. After the course of instructions, she
asked to be baptized together with her three-year old son and her
two slaves, a boy of seven and a girl of eight. Father Martin de
Rada who knew Bisayan dialect best explained to the royal entourage
the significance of the ceremonies. The Superior Father Deigo de
Hererra performed the rites and Legazpi acted as godfather of the
neophyte who was given the name Isabel in memory of the his wife.
As the regenerating waters flowed the cannons saluted the new Christian.
But, one of the sailors, Maestre Andrea, a Greek by origin found
the his heart smitten by the charms of Isabel and confided to the
governor and the friars his intention of marrying her. The Governor
put on a fine weeding which was celebrated with all solemnity. This
was the first Christian marriage celebrated in these isles.
most sensational conversion was that of the King Tupas and his son
the heir, because for a long time they refused to abandon the religion
of their ancestors. But, God's grace conquered them at last. They
were baptized on the third Sunday of Lent in the year 1568 amidst
the outmost jubilation. Visitors coming from as far as Manila were
present. The Governor became the godfather of King Tupas who was
named Felipe in honor of Philip II, King of Spain and his son was
also called Carlos like the king of Spain's son. This entailed the
renunciation of polygamy and the restitution of ill-gotten goods.
Moreover, this broke the final barrier so that the islanders, after
the example of their chief, voluntarily presented themselves in
mass to be instructed and to be baptized.
when the Spaniards latter built the fortresses of this triangular
settlement, and were also digging wells to insure constant water
supply, they also found statue of Our Lady that Pigafetta had given
to the Queen and the Cross of Magellan. This statue is a sign of
Our Lady's protection and is venerated until today as the "Nuestra
Senhora de la Cotta" (Our Lady of the Port). It was before
venerated in the chapel of the Baptistery of the old cathedral of
Cebu. The holy cross can be found today enshrined in an little chapel
outside the Basilica of Santo Niño.
ceiling of the shrine of Magellans Cross, in Cebu, Philippines.
The Cross encases the original Cross planted on this very site on
April 21, 1521.
The scene on the left, recalls the gift of the Santo Nino, that
on the right the planting of the Cross.
one of the ships that had come to Cebu finally arrived in the Port
of Acapulo in Mexico piloted by Father de Urdaneta. By this route,
the farthest colony of Spain was linked to the home government.
However, the peaceful alliance in Cebu did not solve the problem
of food shortage. Legazpi therefore sent his trusted officers to
scout the neighboring islands. Martin de Goyti and Mateo de Saz
made trips to Negros and Leyte islands. But, they only obtained
little to satisfy their needs. So, in 1570 de Goyti went north to
Manila and conquered it after a brief skirmish. For the mean time,
Legazpi transferred his government to Panay Island.
This is how
they occupied Manila. Martin de Goyti and the grandson of Legazpi
Juan de Salcedo went ahead. They lost no time in establishing friendly
relations with the Rajah Matanda and Rajah Soliman, lords of Manila.
It was at that time was occupied by these migrant Malay Muslims
from Borneo. However, the good will did not last long. Rajah Soliman,
who loved his independence, plotted a surprise attack on the Spanish
squadron. But, de Goyti sensed it and successfully assaulted the
entrenchment capturing Soliman's entire artillery. Immediately after,
he set sail to Panay where Legazpi now an "Adelantado"
awaited him. Around May 15, 1571, Legazpi arrived in Manila. He
was worried because the Manilenos might be unfriendly due to de
Goyti's treatment the year before. The next four days, talks and
negotiations were made with two friendly Rajahs, Matanda and Lakandula.
These agreed to live peacefully with the Spaniards and beg pardon
for Soliman who was disloyal to his plighted word. Latter, being
assured that there would be no reprisals, Rajah Soliman also came
and offered hesitantly his vassalage to the King of Spain. In view
of all this, on May 18, 1571, the "Adelantado" debarked
all his forces to take possession of the city in the name of the
Crown of Castille. Legaspi however did not live long. While his
Salcedo his grandson explored the northern parts of Luzon, the "Adelantado"
died in Manila on August 20, 1572 and was buried in the Church of
the Augustinians inside the walled city of Manila.
As to the conquest
of Mindanao, it was rather nominal than effective. All that the
Spaniards are able to do was to build strategic garrisons against
the Moro pirates. They generally won signal victories over the Moslems
sufficient forces however were lacking to subdue them completely.
Only towards the middle of the nineteenth century were they were
able to put an end of Moro piracy thanks to the steam boats which
where speedier than the Moro vintas.
The other parts
of the country were conquered not so much by force, but by the zeal
of the first missionaries. The Spaniards remained in their local
settlements while the missionaries were the one who went and searched
the people and stayed with them even outside these founded settlements.
For the sake of truth, we should say that the conquest and the continuance
of the Philippines under Spain were rather the work of the missionaries
rather than the "conquistadores".
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Manila. Ateneo de Manila University Press, Fourth enlarged edition.
BRAGANZA, Jose Vicente, SVD. 1965. The Encounter. Manila. Catholic
FERNANDEZ, Pablo, OP. 1988. History of the Church in the Philippines.
Manila. Life Today Publications.
VILLAROEL, Fidel, OP. 1981. Lorenzo Ruiz : The Protomartyr of the
Philippines. Manila. Saint Paul's Publication.
WALSH, William Thomas. 1987. Philip II. Illinois, USA. Tan Books
ABELLA, Domingo, Legazpi-Urdaneta Expedition : Its Antecedents.
CATINDIG, Teodoro R., Magellan : The Journey across the Philippines.
DE JESUS, Alberto C., Jr., Christianity and the Conquest.
LEUTERIO-ILUSTRE, Marina, The Virgin and the Santo Niño of
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